- Introduction ::GabonBackground:El Hadj Omar BONGO Ondimba - one of the longest-serving heads of state in the world - dominated the country's political scene for four decades (1967-2009) following independence from France in 1960. President BONGO introduced a nominal multiparty system and a new constitution in the early 1990s. However, allegations of electoral fraud during local elections in 2002-03 and the presidential elections in 2005 exposed the weaknesses of formal political structures in Gabon. Following President BONGO's death in 2009, new elections brought Ali BONGO Ondimba, son of the former president, to power. Despite constrained political conditions, Gabon's small population, abundant natural resources, and considerable foreign support have helped make it one of the more prosperous and stable African countries.Geography ::GabonLocation:Central Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean at the Equator, between Republic of the Congo and Equatorial GuineaGeographic coordinates:1 00 S, 11 45 EArea:total: 267,667 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 77land: 257,667 sq kmwater: 10,000 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly smaller than ColoradoLand boundaries:total: 2,551 kmborder countries: Cameroon 298 km, Republic of the Congo 1,903 km, Equatorial Guinea 350 kmCoastline:885 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmcontiguous zone: 24 nmexclusive economic zone: 200 nmClimate:tropical; always hot, humidTerrain:narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and southElevation extremes:lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 mhighest point: Mont Iboundji 1,575 mNatural resources:petroleum, natural gas, diamond, niobium, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore, hydropowerLand use:arable land: 1.21%permanent crops: 0.64%other: 98.15% (2011)Irrigated land:44.5 sq km (2003)Total renewable water resources:164 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 0.14 cu km/yr (61%/10%/29%)per capita: 97.68 cu m/yr (2005)Natural hazards:NAEnvironment - current issues:deforestation; poachingEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whalingsigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:a small population and oil and mineral reserves have helped Gabon become one of Africa's wealthier countries; in general, these circumstances have allowed the country to maintain and conserve its pristine rain forest and rich biodiversityPeople and Society ::GabonNationality:noun: Gabonese (singular and plural)adjective: GaboneseEthnic groups:Bantu tribes, including four major tribal groupings (Fang, Bapounou, Nzebi, Obamba); other Africans and Europeans, 154,000, including 10,700 French and 11,000 persons of dual nationalityLanguages:French (official), Fang, Myene, Nzebi, Bapounou/Eschira, BandjabiReligions:Christian 55%-75%, animist, Muslim less than 1%Population:1,640,286 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 153note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expectedAge structure:0-14 years: 42.1% (male 347,203/female 344,008)15-24 years: 20.3% (male 166,328/female 165,843)25-54 years: 29.7% (male 243,111/female 243,442)55-64 years: 4.1% (male 32,871/female 34,692)65 years and over: 3.8% (male 26,627/female 36,161) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 77.4 %youth dependency ratio: 68.3 %elderly dependency ratio: 9.2 %potential support ratio: 10.9 (2013)Median age:total: 18.6 yearsmale: 18.4 yearsfemale: 18.8 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:1.96% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 55Birth rate:34.82 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 29Death rate:13.11 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 20Net migration rate:-2.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 165Urbanization:urban population: 86.2% of total population (2011)rate of urbanization: 2.27% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:LIBREVILLE (capital) 619,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Mother's mean age at first birth:18.7 (2000 est.)Maternal mortality rate:230 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 51Infant mortality rate:total: 48.02 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 44male: 55.49 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 40.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 52.15 yearscountry comparison to the world: 214male: 51.58 yearsfemale: 52.74 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:4.52 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 29Contraceptive prevalence rate:31.1% (2012)Health expenditures:3.5% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 175Physicians density:0.29 physicians/1,000 population (2004)Hospital bed density:6.3 beds/1,000 population (2010)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 95% of populationrural: 41% of populationtotal: 87% of populationunimproved:urban: 5% of populationrural: 59% of populationtotal: 13% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 33% of populationrural: 30% of populationtotal: 33% of populationunimproved:urban: 67% of populationrural: 70% of populationtotal: 67% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:5.2% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 14HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:46,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 59HIV/AIDS - deaths:2,400 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 52Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: very highfood or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fevervectorborne disease: malaria and dengue feverwater contact disease: schistosomiasisanimal contact disease: rabies (2013)Obesity - adult prevalence rate:13.9% (2008)country comparison to the world: 124Children under the age of 5 years underweight:8.8% (2001)country comparison to the world: 70Education expenditures:NALiteracy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 89%male: 92.3%female: 85.6% (2011 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 13 yearsmale: 12 yearsfemale: 12 years (2002)Government ::GabonCountry name:conventional long form: Gabonese Republicconventional short form: Gabonlocal long form: Republique Gabonaiselocal short form: GabonGovernment type:republic; multiparty presidential regimeCapital:name: Librevillegeographic coordinates: 0 23 N, 9 27 Etime difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)Administrative divisions:9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue, Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga, Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo, Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-NtemIndependence:17 August 1960 (from France)National holiday:Independence Day, 17 August (1960)Constitution:adopted 14 March 1991Legal system:mixed legal system of French civil law and customary lawInternational law organization participation:has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdictionSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Ali BONGO ONDIMBA (since 16 October 2009)head of government: Prime Minister Raymond NDONG SIMA (since 27 February 2012)cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held on 30 August 2009 (next to be held in 2016); prime minister appointed by the presidentelection results: President Ali BONGO ONDIMBA elected; percent of vote - Ali BONGO ONDIMBA 41.7%, Andre MBA OBAME 25.9%, Pierre MAMBOUNDOU 25.2%, Zacharie MYBOTO 3.9%, other 3.3%note: President BONGO died on 8 June 2009 after serving as president for 32 years; in accordance with the constitution he was replaced on an interim basis by the president of the Senate, Rose Francine ROGOMBE on 10 June 2009; new elections were held on 30 August 2009 and the son of the former president, Ali BONGO Ondimba, was elected presidentLegislative branch:bicameral legislature consists of the Senate (102 seats; members elected by members of municipal councils and departmental assemblies to serve six-year terms) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (120 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve five-year terms)elections: Senate - last held on 18 January 2009 (next to be held in January 2015); National Assembly - last held on 17 December 2011 (next to be held in December 2016)election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDG 75, RPG 6, UGDD 3, CLR 2, PGCI 2, PSD 2, UPG 2, ADERE 1, independents 9; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDG 114, RPG 3, others 3Judicial branch:highest court(s): Supreme Court (organized into Judicial, Administrative, and Accounts chambers and consists of NA judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointment and tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed - 3 by the national president, 3 by the president of the Senate, and 3 by the president of the National Assembly; judges serve 7-year, single renewable termssubordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Court of State Security; county courts; military courtsPolitical parties and leaders:Circle of Liberal Reformers or CLR [General Jean Boniface ASSELE]Congress for Democracy and Justice or CDJ [Jules Aristide Bourdes OGOULIGUENDE]Democratic and Republican Alliance or ADERE [Divungui-di-Ndinge DIDJOB]Gabonese Democratic Party or PDG [Omar BONGO]Gabonese Party for Progress or PGP [Benoit Mouity NZAMBA]Gabonese Union for Democracy and Development or UGDD [Zacharie MYBOTO]Independent Center Party of Gabon or PGCINational Rally of Woodcutters or RNBNational Rally of Woodcutters-Rally for Gabon or RNB-RPG (Bucherons) [Fr. Paul M'BA-ABESSOLE]Party of Development and Social Solidarity or PDS [Seraphin Ndoat REMBOGO]Social Democratic Party or PSD [Pierre Claver MAGANGA-MOUSSAVOU]Union for Democracy and Social Integration or UDISUnion for the New Republic or UPRN [Louis Gaston MAYILA]Union of Gabonese Patriots or UPG [Pierre MAMBOUNDOU]Political pressure groups and leaders:NAInternational organization participation:ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Michael MOUSSA-ADAMOchancery: Suite 200, 2034 20th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009telephone:  (202) 797-1000FAX:  (202) 332-0668consulate(s): New YorkDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Eric D. BENJAMINSONembassy: Boulevard du Bord de Mer, Librevillemailing address: Centre Ville, B. P. 4000, Libreville; pouch:2270 Libreville Place, Washington, DC 20521-2270telephone:  01-45-71-00, after hours - 07380171FAX:  74 55 07Flag description:three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue; green represents the country's forests and natural resources, gold represents the equator (which transects Gabon) as well as the sun, blue represents the seaNational symbol(s):black pantherNational anthem:name: ""La Concorde"" (The Concorde)lyrics/music: Georges Aleka DAMASnote: adopted 1960Economy ::GabonEconomy - overview:Gabon enjoys a per capita income four times that of most sub-Saharan African nations, but because of high income inequality, a large proportion of the population remains poor. Gabon depended on timber and manganese until oil was discovered offshore in the early 1970s. The economy was reliant on oil for about 50% of its GDP, about 70% of revenues, and 87% of goods exports for 2010, although some fields have passed their peak production. A rebound of oil prices from 1999 to 2008 helped growth, but declining production has hampered Gabon from fully realizing potential gains. Gabon signed a 14-month Stand-By Arrangement with the IMF in May 2007, and later that year issued a $1 billion sovereign bond to buy back a sizable portion of its Paris Club debt. Gabon continues to face fluctuating prices for its oil, timber, and manganese exports. Despite the abundance of natural wealth, poor fiscal management has stifled the economy. However, President BONGO ONDIMBA has made efforts to increase transparency and is taking steps to make Gabon a more attractive investment destination to diversify the economy. BONGO ONDIMBA has attempted to boost growth by increasing government investment in human resources and infrastructure. GDP grew more than 6% per year over the 2010-12 period.GDP (purchasing power parity):$25.91 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 121$24.4 billion (2011 est.)$22.79 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$18.38 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:6.2% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 457.1% (2011 est.)6.8% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$16,800 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 80$16,100 (2011 est.)$15,200 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGross national saving:47.1% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 644.9% of GDP (2011 est.)51.9% of GDP (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 37.3%government consumption: 9.8%investment in fixed capital: 30.3%investment in inventories: 0%exports of goods and services: 61.2%imports of goods and services: -38.7%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 3.7%industry: 64.3%services: 32% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:cocoa, coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber; cattle; okoume (a tropical softwood); fishIndustries:petroleum extraction and refining; manganese, gold; chemicals, ship repair, food and beverages, textiles, lumbering and plywood, cementIndustrial production growth rate:6.5% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 35Labor force:616,700 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 155Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 60%industry: 15%services: 25% (2000 est.)Unemployment rate:21% (2006 est.)country comparison to the world: 164Population below poverty line:NA%Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.5%highest 10%: 32.7% (2005)Budget:revenues: $4.987 billionexpenditures: $4.623 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:27.1% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 111Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):2% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 24Public debt:22.2% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 12419.4% of GDP (2011 est.)Fiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):2.7% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 731.3% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:3% (31 December 2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 884.25% (31 December 2009 est.)Commercial bank prime lending rate:15% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 4315% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$2.552 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 120$2.47 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$3.918 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 133$3.534 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$1.785 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 138$1.817 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$NACurrent account balance:$3.747 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 31$3.514 billion (2011 est.)Exports:$10.2 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 92$10.72 billion (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:crude oil, timber, manganese, uraniumExports - partners:Japan 23.9%, US 16.9%, Australia 11.2%, India 7.3%, China 5.4%, Spain 4.1% (2012)Imports:$3.638 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 139$3.319 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, construction materialsImports - partners:France 28.1%, China 12.6%, US 9.4%, Belgium 5.8%, Cameroon 4.7% (2012)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$2.373 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 119$2.177 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$3.196 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 135$2.879 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Exchange rates:Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -510.53 (2012 est.)471.87 (2011 est.)495.28 (2010 est.)472.19 (2009)447.81 (2008)Energy ::GabonElectricity - production:1.604 billion kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 139Electricity - consumption:1.301 billion kWh (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 146Electricity - exports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 198Electricity - imports:0 kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 190Electricity - installed generating capacity:415,000 kW (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 141Electricity - from fossil fuels:59% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 137Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 92Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:41% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 54Electricity - from other renewable sources:0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 128Crude oil - production:244,700 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 36Crude oil - exports:226,800 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 29Crude oil - imports:0 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 187Crude oil - proved reserves:1.309 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 38Refined petroleum products - production:20,700 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 96Refined petroleum products - consumption:15,800 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 141Refined petroleum products - exports:8,985 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 87Refined petroleum products - imports:5,890 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 149Natural gas - production:80 million cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 80Natural gas - consumption:80 million cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 106Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 102Natural gas - imports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 196Natural gas - proved reserves:28.32 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 72Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:4.592 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 125Communications ::GabonTelephones - main lines in use:22,500 (2011)country comparison to the world: 187Telephones - mobile cellular:1.8 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 145Telephone system:general assessment: adequate system of cable, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, radiotelephone communication stations, and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stationsdomestic: a growing mobile-cellular network with multiple providers is making telephone service more widely available with mobile-cellular teledensity exceeding 100 per 100 personsinternational: country code - 241; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)Broadcast media:state owns and operates 2 TV stations and 2 radio broadcast stations; a few private radio and TV stations; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible; satellite service subscriptions are available (2007)Internet country code:.gaInternet hosts:127 (2012)country comparison to the world: 205Internet users:98,800 (2009)country comparison to the world: 160Transportation ::GabonAirports:44 (2013)country comparison to the world: 99Airports - with paved runways:total: 14over 3,047 m: 12,438 to 3,047 m: 21,524 to 2,437 m: 9914 to 1,523 m: 1under 914 m: 1 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 301,524 to 2,437 m: 7914 to 1,523 m: 9under 914 m:14 (2013)Pipelines:gas 807 km; oil 1,639 km; water 3 km (2013)Railways:total: 649 kmcountry comparison to the world: 105standard gauge: 649 km 1.435-m gauge (2008)Roadways:total: 9,170 kmcountry comparison to the world: 137paved: 1,097 kmunpaved: 8,073 km (2007)Waterways:1,600 km (310 km on Ogooue River) (2010)country comparison to the world: 49Merchant marine:registered in other countries: 2 (Cambodia 1, Panama 1) (2010)country comparison to the world: 145Ports and terminals:major seaport(s): Libreville, Owendo, Port-Gentiloil/gas terminal(s): Gamba, LucinaMilitary ::GabonMilitary branches:Gabonese Defense Forces (Forces de Defense Gabonaise): Land Force (Force Terrestre), Gabonese Navy (Marine Gabonaise), Gabonese Air Forces (Forces Aerienne Gabonaises, FAG) (2012)Military service age and obligation:20 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 350,640females age 16-49: 351,718 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 202,404females age 16-49: 195,389 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 17,638female: 17,614 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:1.8% of GDP (2011)country comparison to the world: 82Transnational Issues ::GabonDisputes - international:UN urges Equatorial Guinea and Gabon to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabon-occupied Mbane Island and lesser islands and to establish a maritime boundary in hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay"
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GABON — La république du Gabon a accédé à la pleine souveraineté nationale le 15 juillet 1960. En 1959, le Gabon était devenu État membre de la Communauté française, dans le cadre de la Constitution de 1958, que la population avait adoptée lors du… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Gabón — (oficialmente República Gabonesa) es un país del centro oeste de África. Limita con Guinea Ecuatorial, Camerún, la República del Congo y el Golfo de Guinea. Gobernado por presidentes autócratas desde su independencia de Francia el 17 de agosto de … Enciclopedia Universal
Gabon — Gabon, s. Gabun … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Gabon — Gabon, s. Gabun … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Gabon — Gabon, Fluß in Afrika, s. Gabun … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Gabon — [ga bɔ̃], französischer Name von Gabun. … Universal-Lexikon
Gàbōn — m 〈G Gabóna〉 geogr. država na Z obali Afrike, glavni grad Libreville … Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika
Gabon — Gàbōn m <G Gabóna> DEFINICIJA geogr. država na Z obali Afrike, 267.667 km2, 1.219.000 stan., glavni grad Libreville … Hrvatski jezični portal
Gabon — [ga bōn′] country in WC Africa, on the Gulf of Guinea: formerly a French territory, it became independent in 1960: 103,347 sq mi (267,667 sq km); pop. 1,012,000; cap. Libreville Gabonese [gab΄ə nēz′] adj., n. pl. Gabonese … English World dictionary
Gabon — For other uses, see Gabon (disambiguation). Gabonese Republic République Gabonaise … Wikipedia
Gabon — /gann bawonn /, n. 1. Official name, Gabonese Republic. a republic in W equatorial Africa: formerly a part of French Equatorial Africa; member of the French Community. 1,190,159; 102,290 sq. mi. (264,931 sq. km). Cap.: Libreville. 2. an estuary… … Universalium